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Sūrah al-Fātiḥah; The most powerful and comprehensive Du’ā
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ. ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ. ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ. مَٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ. إِيَّاكَ نَعۡبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسۡتَعِينُ. ٱهۡدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٰطَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ. صِرَٰطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ غَيۡرِ ٱلۡمَغۡضُوبِ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا ٱلضَّآلِّينَ.
In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. It is You we worship and You we ask for help. Guide us to the straight path – The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have earned [Your] anger or of those who are astray.
Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi. Alḥamdu-lillāhi Rabbi-l-ʿālamīn, ar-Raḥmāni-r-Raḥīm, Māliki yawmi-d-dīn, iyyāka naʿbudu wa iyyāka nastaʿīn, ihdina-ṣ-Ṣirāṭa-l-Mustaqīm, ṣirāṭa-lladhīna anʿamta ʿalayhim ghayri-l-maghḍūbi ʿālayhim wa la-ḍ-ḍāllīn.
“It is You we worship identifies the objective, and it is You we seek for help states the means of achieving that objective. Allah is the means of worshipping Allah. The beginning is from Allah and the end is to Allah.” The Straight Path in this context is not just Islam as a whole; it is the path to knowing what is right and following it in every aspect of our lives. Because adherence to the Straight Path is an arduous task, Allah has commanded that we supplicate and ask Him to guide us to it a minimum of 17 times a day. -Ibn Taymiyah and Mukhtasar Minhaaj al-Qasideen.
رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلۡ مِنَّآۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ.
Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing.
Rabbana taqabbal minna innaka Anta-s-Samiu-l-Alim.
Although Prophets Ibraheem and Isma’eel were carrying out Allah’s command by raising the foundations of the Ka’bah, they were still concerned that Allah might not accept this deed from them. This is a direct result of the humility and humbleness with which they worshipped Allah, and so they supplicated in earnest hope that Allah would accept this magnificent act of worship and that it would bring benefit to nations and generations to come. – Tafseer As-Sa’di.
رَبَّنَا وَٱجۡعَلۡنَا مُسۡلِمَيۡنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَآ أُمَّةٗ مُّسۡلِمَةٗ لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبۡ عَلَيۡنَآۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ.
Our Lord, and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and from our descendants a Muslim nation [in submission] to You. And show us our rites and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.
Rabbana wajalna muslimayni laka wamin dhurriyyatina ummatan muslimatan laka waarina manasikana watub alayna innaka anta ttawwabu rrahim.
Prophets Ibraheem and Isma’eel ask Allah to raise from their descendants a people who would submit themselves, in both heart and body, to His Will. They ask Allah that He teaches these descendants different acts of worship—both specific to the rites of Pilgrimage and those more general than that. This admirable supplication is essentially a request that Allah bless them with sincerity and the ability to do righteous deeds. Regardless of a servant’s virtue, sincerity, or devotion to their Lord, shortcomings in one’s duty to Allah are inevitable. For this reason, they both ask Allah to forgive them for such shortcomings and to accept their repentance. -Tafseer As-Sa’di.
رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةٗ وَفِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ حَسَنَةٗ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ.
Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is] good and in the Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.
Rabbana atina fiddunya hasanah wa filakhirati hasanah wa qina adhabanNar.
This supplication brings together the good of this life and the good of the Hereafter, just as it is a supplication for safety against evil in both worlds. The good of this life includes things like wellness, a comfortable home, a righteous spouse, generous provision, beneficial knowledge, the practice of righteous deeds, a comfortable means of transport, an honorable reputation among one’s peers, and other blessings. Good in the Hereafter includes entering Paradise and attaining its luxury and security, remaining steadfast when questioned about one’s deeds, and attaining safety and security in every other situation. Protection against the punishment of Hellfire necessitates that one is granted protection against its preconditions in this life. Hence, this is also a supplication that Allah safeguards us against falling into what is prohibited as well as any doubtful matters that may lead to sin. -Ibn Katheer.
رَبَّنَآ أَفۡرِغۡ عَلَيۡنَا صَبۡرٗا وَثَبِّتۡ أَقۡدَامَنَا وَٱنصُرۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ.
Our Lord, pour upon us patience and plant firmly our feet and give us victory over the disbelieving people.
Rabbana afrigh alayna ṣabrawwa thabbit aqdamana wanṣurna alalqawmilkafirin.
Gruelling situations require an abundance of patience and perseverance, and so rather than simply asking Allah for patience, the Believers ask Allah to pour patience down upon them. -Tafseer at-Tahreer wa’l-Tanweer.
سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَاۖ غُفۡرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ.
We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.
samina waatana ghufranaka rabbana wailayka lmaṣir.
To hear is to listen attentively and understand what is required, and to obey is to adhere to Allah’s commands and stay clear of His prohibitions. Because it is only natural that there will be shortcomings in one’s obedience to Allah, the Believers ask Allah for forgiveness for these shortcomings. -Ibn Katheer and As-Sa’di.
رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذۡنَآ إِن نَّسِينَآ أَوۡ أَخۡطَأۡنَاۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحۡمِلۡ عَلَيۡنَآ إِصۡرٗا كَمَا حَمَلۡتَهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِنَاۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلۡنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِۦۖ وَٱعۡفُ عَنَّا وَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَٱرۡحَمۡنَآۚ أَنتَ مَوۡلَىٰنَا فَٱنصُرۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرينَ.
Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people.
Rabbana la tu’akidhna innasina aw akhta’na, Rabbana wa la tahmil alayna iṣran kama hamaltahu alalladhina min qablina, Rabbana wa la tuhammilna ma la taqata lana bih, wafu anna waghfir lana warhamna Anta Mawlana fanṣurna alalqawmilkafirin.
To pardon and to forgive are interchangeable, but when they appear together as they do in this Ayah, then to pardon refers to wiping out sins, while to forgive refers to concealing them so that a person’s sins are not exposed before others. In an authentic report collected by Muslim, the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wasallam said that whoever recites the last two verses of Surah-al-Baqarah at night will be sufficed by them (i.e. protected against any evil during that night). -Al-Baghawi.
رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغۡ قُلُوبَنَا بَعۡدَ إِذۡ هَدَيۡتَنَا وَهَبۡ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحۡمَةًۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلۡوَهَّابُ.
Our Lord, let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us and grant us from Yourself mercy. Indeed, You are the Bestower.
Rabbana la tuzigh qulubana bada idh hadaytana wahab lana min ladunka rahmatan innaka anta lwahhab
This supplication comes after Allah mentions those who try to seek out and follow verses that might seem obscure in the Qur’an. Such misguided individuals do this in an effort to sow confusion in the hearts of others and to interpret the Qur’an’s verses as they please. Allah states that these are people whose hearts hold an inclination to deviate, and so the Believers ask Allah to protect them against such evil. -At-Tabari and others.
رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ ٱلنَّاسِ لِيَوۡمٖ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُخۡلِفُ ٱلۡمِيعَادَ.
Our Lord, surely You will gather the people for a Day about which there is no doubt. Indeed, Allah does not fail in His promise.
Rabbana innaka jamiu nnasi liyawmin la rayba fihi inna llaha la yukhlifu lmiad
The supplication in this Ayah is implicit. Here, the Believers are asking Allah to forgive their sins so that they will not be held accountable for them on the Day of Judgment. Because Allah has promised to forgive the sins of those who Believe in Him and follow His Prophet, Sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, and adhere to His Book, the Believers beseech Allah by means of this promise, and state that He never fails to uphold His promise. -At-Tabari and others.
رَبَّنَآ إِنَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ.
Our Lord, indeed we have believed, so forgive us our sins and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.
Rabbana innana amanna faghfir lana dhunubana wa qina adhabannar.
In the Ayah preceding this one, Allah mentions some of the rewards Paradise has in store for the pious (those who have Taqwa). Here, He mentions that these same pious Believers invoke Him with the supplication mentioned above. Hence, it is the pious, or those who refrain from what Allah has forbidden, who will attain His forgiveness and His protection from the Hellfire. This, therefore, excludes those who ask for forgiveness with nothing more than their tongues, and without doing what is required to attain forgiveness. -Tafseer at-Tahreer wa’l-Tanweer.
قُلِ ٱللَّهُمَّ مَٰلِكَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ تُؤۡتِي ٱلۡمُلۡكَ مَن تَشَآءُ وَتَنزِعُ ٱلۡمُلۡكَ مِمَّن تَشَآءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَآءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَآءُۖ بِيَدِكَ ٱلۡخَيۡرُۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ.
Say, “O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent.”
Quli llahumma malika lmulki tuti lmulka man tashau watanziu lmulka mimman tashau watuizzu man tashau watudhillu man tashau biyadika lkhayru innaka ala kulli shayin qadir
While the meanings of this Ayah are general, the specific context is that they are part of a response to the Christian creed. A god that can be crucified (as is claimed) by his own creation is not a god who owns sovereignty, let alone a god who is capable of bestowing sovereignty or taking it away from anyone else, or of bringing harm or benefit to anyone else. These verses are also part of a supplication that the Prophet, Sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, taught as a means of asking Allah to pay off debts, no matter how large. Here is a link to the full hadeeth containing the supplication. -Various Tafseers including Aysar At-Tafaseer and At-Tabari
رَبِّ هَبۡ لِي مِن لَّدُنكَ ذُرِّيَّةٗ طَيِّبَةًۖ إِنَّكَ سَمِيعُ ٱلدُّعَآءِ.
My Lord, grant me from Yourself a good offspring. Indeed, You are the Hearer of supplication.
Rabbi hab li milladunka dhuriyyatan tayyibah, innaka samiuddua’.
Because Prophet Zakariyyah and his wife had aged and, hence, lost the physical means of bearing children, in this Ayat, Zakariyyah asks Allah for a child and uses the words from Yourself. In other words, this will be a gift that is not the product of any material means, for all such means no longer exist. Hence, this gift can only be a blessing that Allah bestows out of nothing more than His will and graciousness and without conventional, physical human requirements. The word ‘Samee’ means All-Hearing and is an attribute of Allah, but in this context, it refers to Allah’s capacity to answer prayers or supplications. -Zahrat-al-Tafseer and others.
رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا بِمَآ أَنزَلۡتَ وَٱتَّبَعۡنَا ٱلرَّسُولَ فَٱكۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ.
Our Lord, we have believed in what You revealed and have followed the messenger [Jesus], so register us among the witnesses [to truth].
Rabbana amanna bima anzalta wattabana rrasula faktubna maa shshahidin
These are the words of the true followers of Prophet Jesus and of every Believer. Allah mentions their supplication so that we might follow in their footsteps and know that the truth has always been to worship no one but Allah and to follow His prophets. In the context of this chapter, this Ayah is another response to Christians, for they have adulterated the true message of Prophet Jesus and every other prophet of Allah. -At-Tabari and others.
رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَإِسۡرَافَنَا فِيٓ أَمۡرِنَا وَثَبِّتۡ أَقۡدَامَنَا وَٱنصُرۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ.
Our Lord, forgive us our sins and the excess [committed] in our affairs and plant firmly our feet and give us victory over the disbelieving people.
Rabbanaghfir lana dhunubana wa israfana fi amrina wa thabbit aqdamana wanṣurna alalqawmilkafirin.
These verses were revealed after Uhud when rumours spread that the Prophet, Sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, had been killed. Allah tells the Companions of previous generations of Believers who were afflicted with trials and tribulations yet remained firm. They knew that sins were a reason why Allah inflicts His slaves with defeat, and so they asked Allah to forgive both their minor sins and their excessive transgression (or major sins). Rather than taking confidence in their own patience, they also asked Allah to make them steadfast and to plant firmly their feet when they confront their enemies. -At-Tabari and others
رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقۡتَ هَٰذَا بَٰطِلٗا سُبۡحَٰنَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ. رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ مَن تُدۡخِلِ ٱلنَّارَ فَقَدۡ أَخۡزَيۡتَهُۥۖ وَمَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِنۡ أَنصَارٖ.
Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing]; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire. Our Lord, indeed whoever You admit to the Fire – You have disgraced him, and for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.
Rabbana ma khalaqta hadha batila, subhanaka faqina adhabannar. Rabbana innaka man tudhkilinnara faqad akhzaytah, wa ma lizzalimina min anṣar.
To understand that Allah does not create anything frivolously should lead us to contemplate His creation and the purpose behind it. Hence, when those of sound intellect see what Allah has created and see both the righteous deeds and the sins of His creation, they understand that there will be a reckoning for these actions. Consequently, they ask Allah to protect them against the punishment of Hellfire. -At-Tabari.
رَّبَّنَآ إِنَّنَا سَمِعۡنَا مُنَادِيٗا يُنَادِي لِلۡإِيمَٰنِ أَنۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِرَبِّكُمۡ فَـَٔامَنَّاۚ رَبَّنَا فَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرۡ عَنَّا سَيِّـَٔاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ ٱلۡأَبۡرَارِ.
Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller calling to faith, [saying], ‘Believe in your Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die with the righteous.
Rabbana innana samina munadiyayyunadi lilimani an aminu biRabbikum faamanna, Rabbana faghfir lana dhunubana wa kaffir anna sayyi’atina wa tawaffana maalabrar.
This supplication brings together the practice of righteous deeds (adopting Eman) and the abandonment of sins and evil deeds. Together, these are the means by which a person might be counted among the righteous, persist upon righteousness, and die a righteous Believer. -Tafseer As-Sa’di.
رَبَّنَا وَءَاتِنَا مَا وَعَدتَّنَا عَلَىٰ رُسُلِكَ وَلَا تُخۡزِنَا يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۖ إِنَّكَ لَا تُخۡلِفُ ٱلۡمِيعَادَ.
Our Lord, and grant us what You promised us through Your messengers and do not disgrace us on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed, You do not fail in [Your] promise.
Rabbana wa atina ma waadtana ala rusulika wa la tukhzina yawmalqiyamah, innaka la tukhlifulmiad.
After asking Allah to forgive their sins and make them among the righteous, the Believers then ask Him to grant them the rewards that He has promised them in this life and in the Hereafter. Victory and strength are among the rewards Allah has promised His believing slaves in this life, while in the next life, He has promised comfort, safety, and honor -Tafseer As-Sa’di.
رَبَّنَآ أَخۡرِجۡنَا مِنۡ هَٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِ ٱلظَّالِمِ أَهۡلُهَا وَٱجۡعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيّٗا وَٱجۡعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا.
Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?
Rabbana akhrijna min hadhihi lqaryati zzalimi ahluha wajal lana min ladunka waliyyan wajal lana min ladunka naṣira
This Ayah was revealed concerning those helpless Believers who were still in Makkah before the conquest of Makkah. Allah answered their prayers and granted them someone who would undertake their affairs and defend them against the injustice of those who oppressed them. -Tafseer Al-Baghawi.
رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱكۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ.
Our Lord, we have believed, so register us among the witnesses.
Rabbana amanna faktubna maa shshahidin
These words were spoken by Christians who saw and accepted the Truth of Islam once they had heard Allah’s verses. Upon accepting Islam, they declared their faith and asked Allah to register them along with the ‘witnesses’, who are, in fact, the Muslims. -Tafseer As-Sa’di.